A simple disk check can be enjoyed in the system. On the next boot, the system will automatically check all drives, then safely downloaded to your desktop.
sudo touch /forcefsck
The sudo command (after entering password) will give you the right to create using touch an empty file in the root of the drive /forcefsck, which serves as a signal (flag) for fsck, need to check the disks.
You have to reboot and fsck will start to scan all hard disks listed in /etc/fstab.
Also you can check the system disk in Gparted in LiveCD mode. To do this, unmount the desired partition, right click, Check.
But what do we do if we need to check and block bad sectors on the System partition?
The following steps can be performed either by booting to a LiveCD.
BUT if you will check the external (not the system disk), you can easily to do it from your "home" system, from pre-unmount the scanned section.
I will show an example in LiveCD mode.
1. Boot into LiveCD mode
2. Watch full list of storage volumes:
sudo fdisk -l
In my example this section alone, because I show you an example on a virtual machine. I need to check sda1
3. To dispel doubts, whether the selected drive, you can check the model of the hard drive (carefully, instead of sda1 in the command written sda):
sudo hdparm -i /dev/sda | grep Model
4. If the volume is mounted, before checking should be unmounted:
sudo umount /dev/sda1
5. Checking for badblocks. where badblocks.log file that records the number of dead blocks.
sudo badblocks -v -s /dev/sda1 > badblocks.log
6. Marking bad blocks (marked blocks will be ignored by the system in future):
sudo e2fsck -l badblocks.log /dev/sda1
That's all. The same procedure should be done after formatting the new drives.
Fix your HDD disk:
Before you check the file system must be unmounted, for example:
This single command can do all the previous steps at one time
sudo fsck -t -y -f -c /dev/sda1
The keys and command options fsck:
y - always answer yes to all questions (there is an alternative: the -p key starts the test in a fully automatic mode);
f - forces a file system check (even if the file system is marked as fully functional)
c - looking for broken blocks (bad blocks), and then marks them accordingly
To monitor the status of your HDD or SDD, use the GSmartControl utility.